“Time is the fire we burn in.” And even though we may not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have made an effort to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to your crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance is a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar is really a world apart, a reminder from the ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe inside the eons ahead.
For individuals who seek to discover truths in regards to the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of your energy is an issue of significant proportions. Scientists are generally considering very specific cell properties that transpire at critical junctions within the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes under control while their properties might be exploited is akin to the situation of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as you answer to the situation in the slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples to the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature where all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists have the ability to seclude moments soon enough, returning again and again to analyze that instant of all time.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics has become a significant industry that creates customized products for up to every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the marketplace in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, storage containers, and dewars in every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such a wide variety of products to pick from expertise in those are most efficient may elude the average consumer. To be able to provide a summary of the key producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will probably be profiled in the following paragraphs.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those stuff that many people never consider until they quit working. Built to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers will be the quiet sentinels in the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch over the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists avoid thinking about what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory throughout the day in the event it did. A career’s worth of samples could be lost within a afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the floor. Though this sort of scenario looms ominously in the periphery of each researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for the entire day if it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to ensure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies will be the only company which utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in their refrigerators. Although the natural gas industry provides this system for years, MMR Technologies was the 1st company to patent the technology and adapt it for really small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
How the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact that a combination of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is allowed to expand using a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and also the cool gas passes backup the high temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. A number of liquid-vapor separators may be incorporated inside the cycle so that the expansion of the liquid may be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and because it has an internal power source it can be used for that transportation of samples from storage facility to check out laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the necessity for controlled temperature ramping.
“Like a user you need to are aware of the minimum temperature and how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes certain that uniform temperatures have been maintained through the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages could be preserved for long periods. Locking lids are supplied so that you can protect samples from accidental being exposed to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits most of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality of this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to work longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples below the crystallization point.
Consistent with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also utilizes a special mix of azeotropic gases which are non-flammable and let on-site recycling. Furthermore, a built in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every 24 hours, turning them back to ensure the capillary tubing will be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. includes a long tradition of making ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In fact, with forty years of experience under its belt, So-Low is probably the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the market. As soon as the Montreal Protocol started the phase out of CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to make use of Dupont Suva 95, the latest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler along with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of environmentally friendly refrigerants, So-Low has additionally developed a cutting-edge compressor that may be designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units as an alternative to the standard cylindrical containers. Each one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, along with a storage system adjusts to accommodate an array of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers using more than fifty years of expertise in the marketplace. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and are available in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions towards the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Furthermore, it includes a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil through the evaporating coils.
Sanyo has been manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers more than 20 years, starting with its manufacture of the initial -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the introduction of the very first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the first manufacturer to provide a complete array of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of many largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers now available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for utilization in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally put on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is now used on an array of insulated vessels made for repair of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending upon their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or sit down on tabletops where samples can be simply accessed. Due to quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures as long as one year without having to be regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The common thermal wall contains an aluminum or steel sandwich filled up with polyurethane. The size and style and configuration of dewars vary to this kind of extent that lots of companies build custom dewars to buy. Many of these companies along with their merchandise is reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for a multitude of applications. Naturally, animal breeders are simply a small percentage of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large a part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing part of the industry for the company’s products.
MVE was the first company to formulate biological freezers effective at maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that point MVE has released the entire collection of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling as much as 36,000 vials at temperatures as low as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suitable for cells which can be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also ideal for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate within a liquid medium, like contaminated-blood bags that happen to be liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in america and Germany. Its product line includes from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
In accordance with Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one of the ways his company has been able to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is that they might be custom-built.
One of Quantum Technology’s most widely used products is actually a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is merely $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries outside of The United States and Europe, the fee for purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is probably the reasons why Quantum Technology makes an efficient two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator wherein the helium is retained in the system. The helium using this refrigerator is reliquified for usage time and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, offers a Thermo-Flask brand of products that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different models are available with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each one of these models is available by using a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask collection of products include vented lids to prevent pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to provide coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, that are distributed by a variety of companies throughout the United States. The Bio-Cane systems are available in five sizes and offer features like super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and get capacities up to 6,000 vials. Along with some of the standard features present in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks by using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, and an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates experience of liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes many different traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made from borosilicate glass paid by a protective mesh, and each wide-mouth model has a vented polyethylene stopper to lower evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can be jacketed in aluminum casing for extra safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suited for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times above two weeks. Most of these units come built with a low-evaporation stopper, a completely shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Selections for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to store vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by its very own inventory control system, which is made to maximize the amount of vials which can be safely arranged in to a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials could be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are among the most frequently used and least considered implements inside the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out one day. Then its time to travel shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the initial that concerns the challenge of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials suggest that material is trapped throughout the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents from the internally threaded sort argue that externally threaded vials tend to be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although reports have been conducted in an effort to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, along with the debate continues.
An additional consideration which comes under consideration when choosing cryogenic tubes is definitely the material through which they are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take longer to warm which could negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids through the molding process. However, releasing fluids are easy to remove together with the care, and some brands like Axygen are embracing new polished molds which do not require using releasing fluids. Glass, on the flip side, warms rapidly but is likewise subjected to fracture due to microchannels which may form from the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, and even violent explosions. Plastic vials will also be vunerable to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has been an issue of some contention within this industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the internal pressure from the vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas inside the tube is sufficient to force cells and fluid through the lids of countless non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is often preferred as being the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is additionally used, it has a tendency to shed its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem that had been demonstrated once the “O” rings on the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, gives a large variety of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes which can be used at temperatures as low as -190°C. Intended for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come built with attached leak proof caps that contain a dual lip and a silicon washer. A particular ridge on each cap makes handling easier, contributing to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts together with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, as well as other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be purchased in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes and are avalable in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide array of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. These include polypropylene tubes, which may be used in combination with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and are pressure tested inside a vacuum chamber to be sure the longevity of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen recently developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for usage in lipid fractionation studies. This is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with the 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of the outstanding features of this tube is that it is totally transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a range of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that happen to be silicone gasketed and guaranteed for usage in the centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and are certified to get sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, even though the System 100 vials are bound to be leakproof within a microcentrifuge as much as 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the corporation warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase may lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for pretty much every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it offers developed an extensive catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be found in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that can be hermetically sealed. These are suitable for your preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction causes them to be exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored with a wide range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come built with a number of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be found with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which are designed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added limited to the request in the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions including iron, chromium, or nickel that are typical constituents of dyes. Each one of the company’s vials is designed to snap closed inside a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system includes a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees how the microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor to become re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. posseses an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that can come in an assortment of sizes, shapes, and colors. The person has a choice of selecting from a number of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that could be colored for identification. All of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material from which they are constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures along with temperatures and pressures in an autoclave. Among the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus on in developing its collection of products is the need for cryogenic vials that include reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be bought in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes can be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and all of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems are a critical element of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they could undergo changes that will make them difficult to keep trace. Labels may become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes might be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Just about the most popular methods for containing samples is definitely the canister and cane. By using this technique, a number of vials are enclosed within a long aluminum shaft that is certainly submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems usually expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility in the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation from the freezer, and also decreases the researcher’s being exposed to potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are created to optimize the amount of space for storing afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is really a cardboard or stainless-steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems let the user to set up as many as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International specializes in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Created for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to fit almost any freezer. Clear lids allow contents being viewed without opening the containers, and they may be adjusted in a few models to fit tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers which contain storage racks for holding as much as 267 microtubes. These drawers may be installed in almost any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a series of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are typically keyed to avoid misalignment and supply temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless-steel retainer systems suitable for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They feature vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for simple retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for the increasing number of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks that happen to be constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic packing containers. In fact, many of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with several of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are designed from stainless steel and will include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless-steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be acquired as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Almost certainly, the cryogenic products one buys today would be the same ones that might be used for years to come. An order made today may continue for 10 years. In place, researchers buying Gas Cylinder are not just buying products by themselves, they may be buying for successors. The customer must look into what might 46dexkpky during the period of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated due to improper storage. A little bit money which was saved in the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers may well not seem like the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards built in to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these kinds of products a priority. Appointing a lasting position that is responsible for the cryogenic safety of your laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the guidelines on how to assure the integrity of these samples.