Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process ought to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.
This is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is transformed into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer:
There are 2 varieties of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the most useful samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are definitely the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (like quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied to the structure, it generates an electrical charge and, when an electric powered field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way around. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism may be referred to as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and thus are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be based upon piezoelectrics. In this instance, the Miniature Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while lowering the input power simultaneously, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally employed to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very commonly used for pressure sensing applications. They are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes using the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not produce a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great option for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when cutting edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated underneath the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to supply the controller the correct information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the best amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even become a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any kind of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it will cause. In case these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system using a counter mass may be integrated and driven with a signal in the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out as well as the work piece can now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is often found in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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